Caffeine intake has been linked to increased urinary calcium excretion, which could potentially increase the risk of developing kidney stones. However, studies have consistently found an inverse association between consumption of beverages containing caffeine, such as coffee, and kidney stones. Excessive caffeine consumption can cause a variety of health problems, including kidney stones. Too much coffee, tea, and soda can put stress on the kidneys, leading to higher levels of calcium in the urine.
Despite the extensive research on caffeine's effects on the kidney, its influence on kidney stone disease has been largely overlooked. Recent evidence has shed light on whether caffeine prevents or promotes kidney stone disease. As it is widely recommended to increase fluid intake to prevent the formation of kidney stones, some studies over the past two decades have focused on the relevance of the type of beverages consumed, including caffeinated beverages, in relation to the incidence of kidney stones. In 1996, the first cohort data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) was reported in 45,298 male participants who had no history of kidney stones. The findings showed that not all types of drinks affect kidney stone disease; only caffeinated coffee and decaffeinated coffee and tea were associated with a 10% lower risk of kidney stone incidence. Adequate fluid intake is essential for preventing kidney stones.
It is usually recommended to drink between eight and 10 glasses of water a day, which should allow you to eliminate about 2½ liters of urine a day. One way to measure if you have adequate fluid intake is to check how your urine looks; if it's clear or light yellow, you're probably drinking enough fluids. Avoid consuming too many sugary drinks or cola drinks, as they may increase the risk. The added sodium in sports drinks and an excess of calcium may also increase the risk of stones. Scientists offer some reasons why coffee can help reduce the appearance of kidney stones.
Caffeine increases urine flow, which represents an important protective factor against the development of kidney stones. An in vitro study showed mechanisms underlying the preventive effects of caffeine against kidney stone formation by translocating a CaOx crystal binding protein from apical membranes to the cytoplasm, resulting in a significant reduction in crystal adhesion of CaOx in the apical surface region of renal tubular epithelial cells. Coffee and caffeine consumption have been associated with a lower risk of kidney stones in observational studies. Family or personal history of kidney stones increases risk, as do certain medications and medical conditions. Previous retrospective and prospective studies have described contradictory effects of caffeine on the risk of kidney stones.
One simple strategy to prevent the formation of kidney stones is sufficient hydration and increased water intake to improve urinary output. The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) is the largest, most comprehensive and longstanding patient-focused organization dedicated to the awareness, prevention and treatment of kidney disease in the U. S.On the other hand, because restricting oxalate in the diet is one of the recommended ways to reduce the risk of occurrence or recurrence of CaOx kidney stones, coffee and tea are widely recommended as beverages to avoid. A genetically predicted 80 mg increase in caffeine consumption was significantly associated with a 19% decrease in the odds of kidney stones. Many foods that are popular during summertime can also affect the risk of kidney stones; processed foods and meats such as hamburgers and hot dogs are loaded with sodium and nitrates.
Although caffeine's effects have been extensively studied in several kidney diseases, its role in kidney stone disease seems to be overlooked and not sufficiently researched.